There have been many conflicts in the world from the time immemorial. There are many reasons for the conflicts to occur like region,religion,natural resources ,ethnicity ,culture and many more. All of the reasons for many conflicts related with geographical factors in one or the other way .
In Manipur crisis also we can find the causes with respect to geography of the region as mentioned below.
- The United Naga Council is demanding assurance from the government that districts will not be divided without their consent which they consider as their ancient homeland . In this case the Naga people are particularly have bonded with that region
- In particular, they did not want kuki-dominated sardar hills given the district status as they consider them as migrants from outside to that region
- There is a feeling of ethnicity belonging to particular region and any effort by other ethnic groups to dominate the natives will raise conflict. In this case also it has been observed because Manipur is multi ethnic region with naga,kuki and meiteis and many other small ethnic groups
- There has been different revenue system for the hills and plains before and after the independence where the state owns all lands and individuals lease small holdings and pay taxes. But this is not applicable for the hills where the kuki people are majority.
Conflicts of such type can be resolved with multilateral dialogue between many parties involved. The goal of achieving shared sovereignty can become solution to such conflicts.
India has successfully test-fired nuclear capable intercontinental ballistic missile Agni 5 and is part of Agni series. It was a significant step in the making Indian defense capabilities more robust.
- It has a range of 5000 km and can reach the northernmost part of china
- Agni 5 is the most advanced of all Agni 1,2,3,4 missiles with inbuilt technologies for navigation and guidance ,warhead and engine.
- Success of Agni 5 missile test fire will lend the credibility to the Indian defense technologies amid increasing conflict with the neighbor Pakistan
- This launch will enhance India’s nuclear deterrence capability in entire Asia-pacific region
- This will help in counter balancing the China’s military might ,though to a little extent
- It will send a strong message on India’s strategic capabilities
- Though security establishments made great stride in making nuclear weapons and delivery platforms, there is long way to go before the nuclear triad is complete and competent
- Along with having advanced nuclear weapons , India should also behave like a responsible nuclear power
India has done a good job in developing advanced defense technologies but it lags behind the major powers in the world like US and especially our neighbor China. There is lot more to be done in the defense sector to achieve our aspirations to become a world power without compromising on the welfare sector.
September 2016 marks the decade of EIA notification which is our ostensible tool to arrive at a balance between environmental priorities and developmental needs. It was promulgated first in 1994 under Protection Environment act(1986) and re-engineered in 2006.
Below are the things involved in making EIA:
- Scope and considerations of alternatives
- Baseline data collection
- Impact prediction
- Assessment of alternatives,delineation of mitigation and environmental impact statement
- public hearing
- Environment management plan
- Decision making
- Monitoring and clearance conditions
Every project granted approval from the Environment ministry, the state departments and specialized bodies such as PCBs come with conditions that to be followed.But the regulatory authorities pay scan attention to the compliance of these conditions. Environmental compliance is has been left vague and closed door practice between the two parties- the government and project developers. With no third party involved the compliance remain facile and bureaucratic exercise
Importance of compliance:
- The authorities can not ignore the problems that arise due to the violations compliance conditions since the people living near project will suffer
- Compliance will be able to strike balance between environment and development if implemented properly
Since 2006 EIA has achieved some success preventing damage to environment. But involving people NGOs etc. not only in EIA but in compliance would make it better .
Pakistan is a water abundant country in the 1951. But now water scarcity has been increased greatly and it is accusing India in this matter. But India is no way responsible for its water scarcity but Pakistan itself.
- Rapid increase in the population but the water supply remained the same
- Pakistan’s water utilization is extremely inefficient.
- 2/3 of water is lost due to faulty transmission and seepage of canal system
- Pakistan has not invested on dams to store water in the lean winter months
- The existing dams have lost 20-25% of the storage capacity
- Pakistan’s ground water and surface water usage is not sustainable
- Increasing population
- Climate change,changing rain patterns ,melting of glaciers makes the situation worse in the future
What should be done:
- Building dams without changing the ecology of the region
- Improved infrastructure in the canal system
- Improving the productivity of the water and efficient use of available water
A report made by senate standing committee said that India is using water less than of its allocated water and not responsible for water scarcity in Pakistan.Pakistan has to realize the actual reasons for its water scarcity and should take the appropriate steps to save its people .
The present world is highly prone to terrorist attacks. In the recent times the lone wolf attacks have been increased significantly throughout the world and especially in Europe. But the intensified surveillance of suspected groups and individuals will do little why because
- It is impossible to identify and continuously monitor the people who are indoctrinated to do terrorist attacks
- The old way of training and sending terrorists has changed and the new way of instantly brainwashing them and provoking them to attack has been increased
- Huge influx of Syrian refugees has happened in many countries and it is very difficult to identify who are innocents and who are having evil designs to do attacks
- Privacy vs surveillance debate will come into picture and authorities may face difficulties to surveillance in the countries where privacy is given greater importance
- Surveillance of certain communities will increase the apprehensions and will become breeding grounds for extremist activities
- Strict background vetting and counselling should happen for incoming refugees as a short time measure
- Counter ideology should promoted rigorously against the extremist ideology
- Promoting liberal education among children in the schools will help in long term
Though surveillance is helpful it will not be the complete solution to the extremism. All the countries should cooperate each other to eliminate this century’s biggest threat so that everyone lives in peace.
Post Uri attack India responded with the surgical strikes which was showcased as a grand success in destroying the terrorist launchpads across LOC. But Pakistan altogether rejected such attacks by India and there by not taken any action officially. The effects of surgical strikes are bot positive and negative as below
- After public outburst after Uri attack, the surgical strike has given a sense of taking revenge to the people
- It was successful in destroying the terrorist launchpads across LOC
- India a sent a strong message to Pakistan, militants and international community that It will react strongly to any such attacks if happens again
- Since the surgical strikes, the attacks on military bases by militants has increased
- Military casualties have been increased significantly defending our bases which caused huge lose to country and their beloved families
- Ceasefire agreement has been completely violated by both sides which has been successfully kept LOC with relative peace since 2003
- Diplomatic relations between two counties has been damaged severely and trust between the two countries and people to people relations as well
Though the surgical strike is considered successful it has some negative consequences.There are steps that needs to be taken to reduce the negative effects and some concrete steps should be taken to handle terrorism and the Pakistan at LOC.