It is argued that geography predetermines conflicts. Illustrate this with the example of ongoing Manipur crisis.

There have been many conflicts in the world from the time immemorial. There are many reasons for the conflicts to occur like region,religion,natural resources ,ethnicity ,culture and many more. All of the reasons for many conflicts related with geographical factors in one or the other way .

In Manipur crisis also we can find the causes with respect to geography of the region as mentioned below.

  1. The United Naga Council is demanding assurance from the government that districts will not be divided without their consent which they consider as their ancient homeland . In this case the Naga people are particularly have bonded with that region
  2. In particular, they did not want kuki-dominated sardar hills given the district status as they consider them as migrants from outside to that region
  3. There is a feeling of ethnicity belonging to particular region and any effort by other ethnic groups to dominate the natives will raise conflict. In this case also it has been observed because Manipur is multi ethnic  region with naga,kuki and meiteis and many other small ethnic groups
  4. There has been different revenue system for the hills and plains before and after the independence where the state owns all lands and individuals lease small holdings and pay taxes. But this is not applicable for the hills where the kuki people are majority.

Conflicts of such type can be resolved  with multilateral dialogue between many parties involved. The goal of achieving shared sovereignty can become solution to such conflicts.


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Why is the successful test-firing of the long-range ballistic missile Agni-V for the fourth time considered as a significant step? Examine.

India has successfully test-fired nuclear capable intercontinental ballistic missile Agni 5 and is part of Agni series. It was a significant step in the making Indian defense capabilities more robust.


  1. It has a range of 5000 km and can reach the northernmost part of china
  2. Agni 5 is the most advanced of all Agni 1,2,3,4 missiles with inbuilt technologies for navigation and guidance ,warhead and engine.
  3. Success of Agni 5 missile test fire will lend the credibility to the Indian defense technologies amid increasing conflict with the neighbor Pakistan
  4. This launch will enhance India’s nuclear deterrence capability in entire Asia-pacific region
  5. This will help in counter balancing  the China’s military might ,though to a little extent
  6. It will send a strong message on India’s strategic capabilities

Way forward:

  1. Though security establishments made great stride in making nuclear weapons and delivery platforms, there is long way to go before the nuclear triad is complete and competent
  2. Along with having advanced nuclear weapons , India should also behave like a responsible nuclear power

India has done a good job in developing advanced defense technologies but it lags behind the major powers in the world like US and especially our neighbor China. There is lot more to be done in the defense sector to achieve our aspirations to become a world power without compromising on the welfare sector.

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September 2016 marked a decade of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification in India. What is the procedure involved in making EIA? After EIA and project approval, what mechanism exists to check compliance of project conditions? Why is compliance important? Critically examine.

September 2016 marks the decade of EIA notification which is our ostensible tool to arrive at a balance between environmental priorities and developmental needs. It was promulgated first in 1994 under Protection Environment act(1986) and re-engineered in 2006.

Below are the things involved in making EIA:

  1. Screening
  2. Scope and considerations of alternatives
  3. Baseline data collection
  4. Impact prediction
  5. Assessment of alternatives,delineation of mitigation and environmental impact statement
  6. public hearing
  7. Environment management plan
  8. Decision making
  9. Monitoring and clearance conditions

Compliance mechanism:

Every project granted approval from the Environment ministry, the state departments and specialized bodies such as PCBs come with conditions that to be followed.But the regulatory authorities pay scan attention to the compliance of these conditions. Environmental compliance is has been left vague and closed door practice between the two parties- the government and project developers. With no third party involved the compliance remain facile and bureaucratic exercise

Importance of compliance:

  • The authorities can not ignore the problems that arise due to the violations compliance conditions since the people living near project will suffer
  • Compliance will be able to strike balance between environment and development if implemented properly

Since 2006 EIA has achieved some success preventing damage to environment. But involving people NGOs etc. not only in EIA but in compliance would make it better .

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Pakistan is facing severe water crisis and it blames India for its water woes and accuses it of “water terrorism.” In this light, critically analyse the causes of Pakistan’s water crisis.

Pakistan is a water abundant country in the 1951. But now water scarcity has been increased greatly and it is accusing India in this matter. But India is no way responsible for its water scarcity but Pakistan itself.


  1. Rapid increase in the population but the water supply remained the same
  2. Pakistan’s water utilization is extremely inefficient.
  3. 2/3 of water is lost due to faulty transmission and seepage of canal system
  4. Pakistan has not invested on dams to store water in the lean winter months
  5. The existing dams have lost 20-25% of the storage capacity

Future challenges:

  1. Pakistan’s ground water and surface water usage is not sustainable
  2. Increasing population
  3. Climate change,changing rain patterns ,melting of glaciers makes the situation worse in the future

What should be done:

  1. Building dams without changing the ecology of the region
  2. Improved infrastructure in the canal system
  3. Improving the productivity of the water and efficient use of available water

A report made by senate standing committee said that India is using water less than of its allocated  water and not responsible for water scarcity in Pakistan.Pakistan has to realize the actual reasons for its water scarcity and should take the appropriate steps to save its people .


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Ten years ago, the report of the Sachar Committee, on the social, economic and educational condition of Muslims in India, was tabled in Parliament. Has the condition of muslims improved during these ten years? Critically examine.

It has been a decade since the Sachar committee report placed before parliament on the socio,economical and educational conditions of the Muslims in the country. Since then the conditions of the Muslims has almost remained the same.

  1. Share of Muslims in India’s police forces has fallen from 7.6% to 6.3%
  2. Work participation of Muslim men increase slightly from 47.5% in 2001  to 49.5% in 2011 and for Muslim women  it is even smaller from 14.1% in 2001 to 14.8% in 2011
  3. Percentage of Muslims in IAS and IPS cadre are 3% and 4% respectively in sachar committee report but in 2016 it is reported as 3.3% and 3.1% respectively
  4. Sex Ration among Muslims remained better than that of  India
  5. Percentage of Muslims living in urban areas remained higher than the national average in both the census of 2001 and 2011
  6. Literacy has been increased almost 10% among the Muslims but it is still below the national average.

Way forward:

  1. Better Implementation of the schemes like Nai MAnzil,Nai Roshni, MANAS and USTTAD
  2. Special focus on Muslims in implementing the schemes like skill India,MUDRA Yojana and in social security schemes
  3. Proving employment opportunities in the formal sector with better wages
  4. Proving equal rights to the muslim women par with the muslim men will empower them

Muslims are the largest minorities in India and without their all round development Indian will not become prosperous. Developing them at par with the rest of the society is the need of the hour and with better implementation it can happen.


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The world faces the prospect of increased terrorist activity in multiple regions of the world, and especially in Europe. Does intensified electronic and physical surveillance of suspected groups or individuals would help reduce these attacks? Examine

The present world is highly prone to terrorist attacks. In the recent times the lone wolf attacks have been increased significantly throughout the world and especially in Europe. But the intensified surveillance of suspected groups and individuals will do little why because

  1.  It is impossible to identify and continuously monitor the people who are indoctrinated to do terrorist attacks
  2. The old way of training and sending terrorists has changed and the new way of instantly brainwashing them and provoking them to attack has been increased
  3. Huge influx of Syrian refugees has happened in many countries and it is very difficult to identify who are innocents and who are having evil designs to do attacks
  4. Privacy vs surveillance debate will  come into picture and authorities may face difficulties to surveillance in the countries where privacy is given greater importance
  5. Surveillance of certain communities will increase the apprehensions and will become breeding grounds for extremist activities

Way Forward:

  1. Strict background vetting and counselling should happen for incoming refugees as a short time measure
  2. Counter ideology should promoted rigorously against the extremist ideology
  3. Promoting liberal education among children in the schools will help in long term

Though surveillance is helpful it will not be the complete solution to the extremism. All the countries should cooperate each other to eliminate this century’s biggest threat so that everyone lives in peace.

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Along with a disturbing rise in attacks on Army camps across Jammu and Kashmir, the Line of Control and the International Boundary in the State are also alarmingly tense today. Do you think India’s surgical strike across LoC was a strategic mistake? Critically comment.

Post Uri attack India responded with the surgical strikes which was showcased as a grand success in destroying the terrorist launchpads across LOC. But Pakistan altogether rejected such attacks by India and there by not taken any action officially. The effects of surgical strikes are bot positive and negative as below


  1. After public outburst after Uri attack, the surgical strike has given a sense of taking revenge to the people
  2. It was successful in destroying the terrorist launchpads across LOC
  3. India a sent a strong message to Pakistan, militants and international community that It will react strongly to any such attacks if happens again


  1. Since the surgical strikes, the attacks on military bases by militants has increased
  2. Military casualties have been increased significantly defending our bases which caused huge lose to country and their beloved families
  3. Ceasefire agreement has been completely violated by both sides which has been successfully kept LOC with relative peace since 2003
  4. Diplomatic relations between two counties has been damaged severely and trust between the two countries and people to people relations as well

Though the surgical strike is considered successful it has some negative consequences.There are steps that needs to be taken to reduce the negative effects and some concrete steps should be taken to handle terrorism and the Pakistan at LOC.



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