The Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960 by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan.
- It was brokered by the World Bank.
- The treaty administers how river Indus and its tributaries that flow in both the countries will be utilised.
- According to the treaty, Beas, Ravi and Sutlej are to be governed by India, while, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum are to be taken care by Pakistan.
- However, since Indus flows from India, the country is allowed to use 20 per cent of its water for irrigation, power generation and transport purposes.
- Under the Treaty, the waters of Eastern Rivers are allocated to India. India is under obligation to let flow the waters of the Western Rivers except for the following uses
- (a) Domestic Use,
- (b) Non-consumptive use,
- (c) Agricultural use as specified,
- (d) Generation of hydro-electric power as specified
- A Permanent Indus Commission was set up as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the Treaty. The Commission solves disputes arising over water sharing.
- The Treaty also provides arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably.
- Though Indus originates from Tibet, China has been kept out of the Treaty. If China decides to stop or change the flow of the river, it will affect both India and Pakistan.
- Climate change is causing melting of ice in Tibetan plateau, which scientists believe will affect the river in future.
- It maybe noted that both India and Pakistan are still at loggerheads over various issues since Partition, but there has been no fight over water after the Treaty was ratified.
Brief Provisions of Indus Waters Treaty 1960 (PDF 12.1 kb)