The Amendment Act has added part IX to the Constitution of India entitled as ‘Panchayats’. The part consists of provisions from Article 243 to 243-0. A new schedule called as Eleventh Schedule lists 29 functional items that panchayats are supposed to deal with under Article 243-G. The basic provisions of the Act are divisible into compulsory provisions and voluntary arrangements.
Compulsory Provisions include:
- Organisation of the Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages
- Establishment of panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels
- Direct elections to all seats in panchayats at village, intermediate and district levels
- Indirect elections to the post of chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels.
- 21 years to be the minimum age for contesting election to panchayats
- Reservation of one third seats (both members and chairperson) for women in panchayats at all the three levels
- Reservation of seats (both members and chairperson) for Scs and STs in panchayats at all the three levels
- Fixing tenure of five years for panchayats at all levels and holding fresh elections within six month in the event of supersession of any panchayat
- Establishment of state election commission for conducting elections to the panchayats
- Constitution of state finance commission after every five years to review the financial positions of the panchayats
Voluntary provisions include:
- Giving representation to members of the Parliament(both houses) and the state legislature(both house) in the panchayats at different levels falling within their constituencies
- Providing reservation of seats (both members and chairperson) for backward classes in panchayats at any level.
- Granting powers and authority to the panchayats to enable them to function as institutions of self government
- Devolution of powers and responsibilities upon panchayats to prepare plans for economic development and social justice and to perform some or all 29 functions listed in the eleventh schedule of the constitution
- Granting financial powers to the panchayats that is to levy collect and appropriate taxes duties tolls and fees.
Reference : http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/constitution/73rd-amendment-of-the-constitution-of-india-1992-summary/46681/