Basic Structure of Indian Constitution

Basic features are not defined exclusively anywhere. From various judgments the following have emerged as a basic structure of the constitution:

  1. Supremacy of the constitution
  2. Sovereign, democratic and republican nature of the Indian Polity
  3. Secular character of the constitution
  4. Separation of power between legislature, executive and judiciary
  5. Federal character of the constitution
  6. Unity and integrity of the country
  7. Welfare state
  8. Judicial review
  9. Freedom and dignity of the individual
  10. Parliamentary system
  11. Rule of law
  12. Harmony and balance between Fundamental rights and DPSP
  13. Principle of equality
  14. Free and fair elections
  15. Independence of judiciary
  16. Limited power of Parliament to amend constitution
  17. Effective access to justice
  18. Principle of reasonableness
  19. Power of supreme court under 32, 136, 141 and 142
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